REMEMBERING THE SECOND BAHÁ’Í WORLD CONGRESS

REMEMBERING THE SECOND BAHÁ’Í WORLD CONGRESS

“I eagerly anticipate the day when New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant of God will go forth to every part of the world, thus making that city outstanding from every point of view …” ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá

This is my personal reminiscence, in brevity, of the Second Bahá’í World Congress that I attended while residing in Malaysia.

 The year 1992 designated as the Holy Year saw the worldwide Bahá’í community observing the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá’u’lláh, supplemented with many other significant events. The first authorized English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, the Most Holy Book was released in this year. On 28 May, the scroll bearing the Roll of Honor of the Knights of Bahá’u’lláh was deposited at the entrance door of the inner Sanctuary of the Most Holy Shrine. On 29 May representatives of the Bahá’í world believers and the Knights of Bahá’u’lláh kept vigil at the resting place of Bahá’u’lláh in commemorating the centenary of His ascension. Equally significant was the holding of the Second Bahá’í World Congress, the biggest gathering so far in Bahá’í history, in New York City from 23 to 26 November 1992 to “celebrate the Centenary of the inauguration of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh and to proclaim its aims and unifying power.” It was in its Riḍván message of 1991 that the Supreme Body mentioned New York as the venue of the Congress where the beloved Master revealed the implications of His station as the appointed Centre of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh and which city He designated as the City of the Covenant”. The message also mentioned that while the Congress was in progress Bahá’í communities were to hold appropriate auxiliary events to magnify the purpose of the Congress.

Through the infallible guidance of the Universal House of Justice, a most suitable program was developed to take the Congress participants on a four-day spiritual journey. The Universal House of Justice had given the task of organizing the Congress in New York city to none other than the American Bahá’í Community. At the time when this pressing task was given, there was no hall large enough to accommodate the 30,000 participants who were expected to gather. The largest was the Jacob Javits Convention Centre of New York, completed in 1986, where the Congress was to take place.

ESCALATION OF EXCITEMENT

The organizers of the Congress in the USA had been communicating with the various national communities, providing regular updates on the forthcoming Congress. Having missed the spiritual joy and exhilaration of the historical First Bahá’í World Congress held in London in 1963, the new generation of believers took every effort not to miss the Second Bahá’í World Congress. Many were busy getting their leaves approved, saving or borrowing sufficient amounts of money, applying for passports and visas, and getting winter clothing as well. The United States Embassies abroad had always been very strict on ensuring that the applicants for visas to enter the USA were financially sound or had some stable jobs. Yet it was through some miracle that many believers with no financial means or stable jobs or who were unemployed were granted the needed visa, much to their surprise. In many countries, people who never dreamt of making it to the Congress were enabled by the immense mercy of Bahá’u’lláh to participate. As the days approached the excitement climaxed and the friends were phoning each other to update themselves or help each other in every possible way. 

Some four days before the Congress was to start, the participants started to fly into the USA as individuals and in groups through various ports of entry. One of the delegations from Malaysia arrived into Chicago city and went to the House of Worship in Wilmette, followed by a tour of the national office, a walking distance from the Temple. The unexpected and most pleasant privilege and surprise were when they were taken to the archives in the basement of the Temple where they viewed relics of Bahá’u’lláh, and ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá, and some copies of Their Tablets, along with some original letters that the Guardian had written to the American believers.

PROCLAMATION IN THE SKY

On the evening of 22 November, the Malaysian delegation flew from Chicago to New York. As they were waiting in the departure hall at Chicago airport, many other local Bahá’ís from Chicago and believers from abroad joined them for connecting flights. It was a wonderful sight to behold with many greeting each other quite nosily with “Allah-u-Abhá”, with the ground crew not able to guess who this new race of men was. Pleasant shocks and surprises awaited them 30,000 feet above in the sky. Once all had boarded, the cabin crew became surprised to see the Bahá’ís consorting with each other with great joy and happiness. Some were wearing T-shirts bearing the words “Second Bahá’í World Congress”. One air hostess approached me and asked to this effect, “I see you people coming from different countries and yet mingle so friendly with each other. I also see the words “Second Bahá’í World Congress” on some T-shirts. What is this all about?” I gave a brief introduction to the Faith and the World Congress. As the plane landed at New York JFK International Airport the pilot made the usual announcement, “Ladies and gentlemen we have just landed in the JFK International Airport…” After a pause, the pilot made a special announcement, “We take this opportunity to welcome the members of the Bahá’í Faith from different parts of the globe to the Second Bahá’í World Congress in New York. We wish you a pleasant stay in New York and an enjoyable Congress.” There was thunderous applause from all the passengers with the cabin crew too joining them. 

PERFECT GUIDANCE AND ARRANGEMENTS

Most of the participants were coming into the city for the first time, not knowing what would be in store. But the Congress organizers made the lives of the participants so easy and smooth. In each of the designated hotels, there were Bahá’í Desks manned by volunteers to assist the participants. They distributed booklets containing all the details of the Congress and other vital information. The details were so perfect that needed no further clarification. Buses shuttled from some nearby major hotels to the venue of the Congress. All those accommodated in smaller hotels were to walk to such hotels nearest to them. And after the sessions ended, they were brought back to where they boarded the buses. Group breakfasts were organized at the nearest restaurants. All routes to the restaurants, hotels and places where ancillary activities were organized in the evenings were well-detailed.

PRESS PUBLICITY

On November 22, the New York Times ran a story that read, “30,000 Baha’is from around the world are expected at the four-day gathering, which marks 100 years since the death of the Baha’i prophet, Baha’u’llah…” All newspapers and TV stations were actively zeroing in on the Congress.

EVE OF THE CONGRESS

On 22 November, the eve of the Congress, surprises awaited everyone. The participants who had arrived in New York were welcomed to gather at the New York Hilton to meet other believers. In the afternoon, Hand of the Cause of God Mr. ʻAlí-Akbar Furútan was seated on a chair in a big hall. Friends rushed to greet him, shake hands and take photos. Though he appeared very exhausted he was all smiles to see the thousands of Bahá’ís greeting him. To each of them, he asked for their countries of origin, and when told they were surprised to hear Mr. Furútan relating some growth and development of the Faith in those countries they came from.

Family of Yankee Leong, the first believer of the then Malaya with Mr. Furútan. From bottom L-R: Evelyn Ng, Dennis Chee, Doreen Tan and her husband Tan Boon Tin. Standing at the back is Lily Ng, daughter of Yankee Leong

There was also a large ballroom arranged for a family reunion. In different corners of the ballroom were posters reading “African Continent”, “Latin America”, etc. Pioneers who had gone to many parts of the world during the Ten-Year Crusade period had lost contact with their families for decades. And this was where the families met each other after decades of separation. Once both parties had identified each other there were hugging, sobbing, and crying loudly to which bystanders were also moved to tears. Some pioneers who went as youths returned as parents or grandparents, with their children and grandchildren accompanying them. It was indeed moving to see many families of mixed marriages as well.


A believer greeting Mr. Furútan.

THE CONGRESS STARTS – DAY ONE

The main sessions of the World Congress took place two hours each day at the Jacob Javits Centre. The whole Congress was broadcast to more than 50 countries worldwide. The 30,000 participants of the Congress represented the diversity of the Baháʼís from over 180 different nations.

The earth-shaking event that was to shake all souls had started. Early in the morning, the believers started to arrive in the main hall. As the Jacob Javits Centre could accommodate only 15,000 people at any time,  the organizers had to run the Congress in two sessions- the morning session for 15,000 believers and the afternoon session for the same number of believers with the same program. Participants were either given yellow badges or blue badges to indicate whether they were to attend the morning or afternoon sessions. The only difference was that the morning session had some live sessions such as the official opening session that was recorded and screened in the afternoon sessions. Yet the spirit of the live events in the morning sessions was never lost out in the afternoon sessions. There was a big hall on the ground floor where the program was televised live for those in the afternoon session who arrived earlier. Children were placed there in the care of the volunteers and relatives in this same hall until the parents returned from the Congress sessions.


Long lost friends meet again. L-R: Chong Boo Haw of Malaysia with Mrs. Elizabeth Gibson of the USA who was in Malaysia from 1970 to 1973, serving in various capacities, including on the National Spiritual Assembly. (Photo Courtesy: N.S.S. Silan)

HEAVENS BROKE LOOSE

Inside the Javits Centre, there was the Hall of Banners, displaying some large mounted flags. Each banner was six square meters and mounted on a frame. They mentioned the name of the respective country with a Bahá’í quotation. As the participants started arriving at the hall, their eyes beheld the unbelievable- that was the largest gathering of believers from all walks of life, from the most remote to the most urban dwelling, the most literate to the most untutored, poorest to the richest and speaking different languages. That was simply a garden of flowers of all colors, where any kind of man-made prejudice had no place at all. Language was not a barrier and they found themselves very much at home. One tribal believer, Mr. William Pandawa from the most interior of Papua New Guinea was one of the centres of attraction. He had travelled by foot for one whole day to reach the nearest airstrip from where he joined twenty other delegates to the Congress. He was one of those called up to say prayers.

Huge banners. The banner to the left is from the Penang Island community in Malaysia. 


Mr. William Pandawa at the extreme right with his new friends. Second from left is Tan Boon Tin of Malaysia

For a Congress of such magnitude, some 4,000 volunteers were recruited originally. As the Congress kick-started, more volunteers were needed. New volunteers were recruited from among the participants and were lined up inside the main hall, in the large foyer hall and outside the building to ensure there was no flaw! The volunteers discharged their duties, sacrificing their own active participation. And there was heavy security at the Congress, manned by security personnel.

As they arrived at the Jacob Javits Centre. (Photo courtesy: Bahá’í International Community) 

ARRIVAL AT THE MAIN HALL

As the participants entered the main hall, volunteers guided them to where to be seated. As they walked through the corridor, cameras projected them on a large screen in front of them. The audience who were already seated too viewed the screen to detect anyone known to them. Each day, as they arrived in the main hall the volunteers issued special tickets to selected participants, at random, to occupy the front row. They represented believers from different nationalities and cultural backgrounds, as reflected in their dresses. It was a theatre seating arranged in a semi-circle arrangement. There was a huge screen right at the back of the stage to project the arrival of other participants into the hall and all could see. The same screen projected speakers giving speeches given on the stage. The very arrival into the hall generated so much spirit of joy and happiness.


Stage with huge screens on left and right, with choir members standing between the stage and the backdrop.

 MESSAGES AND GREETINGS

Just before the official opening of the Congress, a most exciting session took place. Judge James Nelson, Chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States read the message from President George Bush. In that message the President mentioned, “I am pleased to send the greetings to the American members of the Bahá’í community and the millions of Bahá’ís around the world as you mark the 100th anniversary of the passing of Bahá’u’lláh the Prophet founder of the Bahá’í Faith…. I know that you are mindful of fellow believers who are being denied the religious freedom and tolerance that are central to Bahá’í teachings. In numerous statements and conventional resolutions, the United States has repeatedly expressed the hope that Bahá’ís in Iran, the birthplace of your Faith will be permitted to practice their religion as guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights”. The President in the message also extolled the teachings of the Faith, “Bahá’í teachings on religious tolerance, the unity of mankind, the elimination of prejudice, equality of the sexes and universal peace, embody principles that all people of good will admire and support”. He ended, “As you salute the life and Writings of Bahá’u’lláh, I join with you in praying that we may see the realization of these fundamental principles in every land. You have my best wishes for a meaningful celebration.”

Judge George Nelson then invited and introduced David N. Dinkins, the Mayor of New York to address the Congress.  In his message, the Mayor mentioned he was pleased with the Bahá’ís for selecting New York as venue for this Congress and extolled the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith and its struggles for world peace. Then he read the official proclamation from the office of the Mayor of New York. The statement recalled the visit by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá to New York in 1912, a city which He called it the “City of the Covenant”. It further stated that people from countries throughout the world have come to USA to escape persecution and build new lives for themselves and their families. The Mayor welcomed the members of the Bahá’í Faith and said he joined them in their wish for peace and unity among all the peoples of the earth. The proclamation ended with this weighty proclamation. “Now therefore I, David Dinkins Mayor of the city of New York in recognition of this important gathering in our city do hereby proclaim Monday November 23, 1992 in the city of New York as the Bahá’í World Congress Day.”

Both the Mayor of New York and the Chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of USA waited for the long applause to end. When the applause ended, Judge James Nelson presented a copy of an invocation that ‘Abdu’l‑Bahárevealed in New York City during His visit in 1912 and mentioned in emphatic language that the city of New York is unique for the Bahá’ís. The Mayor, touched by that gift read the opening statement by the Master which said, “Bless Thou O King of Kings the city of New York.” The Mayor then said he would not go through the entire statement but just said “God bless all of you.”

That the President of the USA and the Mayor of New York sent so loving and so weighty greetings to the Congress, and by extension to the Bahá’í world was indeed an unexpected and most pleasant surprise, underscoring the recognition the Faith had gained at the highest levels.

OFFICIAL OPENING

Then came the official opening of the Congress for day one, with prayers offered in the various languages, by representatives from different backgrounds, who appeared in their traditional dress.  The Theme of Day One concentrated on the recognition of Baha’u’llah as the Promise of All Ages. Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum as representative of the Universal House of Justice opened the Congress. She first conveyed the love and greetings from the Universal House of Justice, the International Teaching Centre and all serving in the World Centre. She said that the Congress was important to everyone gathered and its importance cannot be underestimated as the Faith was becoming universally recognized all over the world, with Bahá’ís living in each and every corner. Amatu’l-Bahá stated, “You couldn’t put your finger on a map of the world where there are no Bahá’ís.” She said the people, including many officials are slowly turning unto Bahá’ís and understanding what Bahá’u’lláh has brought to the world. She then read the message from the Universal House of Justice to the Congress.

Amatu’l-Bahá at the opening session. (Photo Courtesy: N.S.S. Silan)

The message, among others said that so wide a diversity of the human race assembled at the Congress is in itself history-making and an impressive demonstration of the potency and potential of the Covenant as the instrument designed by the Lord of the Age for the unification and pacification of the nations and peoples of the earth. The message also paid moving tribute to the majestic figure of ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá and mentioned that in His epic journey to North America, He impressed upon the early occidental believers the pivotal importance of the Covenant; and it was in New York City that He chose to disclose to His disciples the special characteristics of that Covenant and His true station as its appointed Centre. The occasion won for this leading city of the western hemisphere the surname, City of the Covenant. It was for this reason that New York was the fitting venue for the Congress where the friends had gathered with such solemnity and spiritual joy.

FLOWERS FROM THE CRADLE

Then came the tear-jerking moment. The sacrifices by the fellow believers in Iran and the untold persecutions they went through in the past thirteen years were well remembered, with a heavy heart. While believers from different parts of the world had gathered in New York, the believers in the cradle of the Faith were deprived. But to the surprise of everyone the believers from the cradle of the Faith sent a gift of flowers to the Congress. When baskets of flowers were brought to the stage, the choir sang “Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá!” in the most moving tone. Everyone broke down in tears. The flowers were laid below the main stage to remain throughout the Congress.

This was followed by a talk by Mr. David Hoffman, retired member of the Supreme Body who acknowledged the presence of the three Hands of the Cause, and spoke lucidly on the topic of “Bahá’u’lláh – The Promise of All Ages”.

PARADING OF THE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD

The Chairperson, looking at the sea of Bahá’ís in the gathering mentioned spontaneously that the Bahá’í Faith is most likely representing the most diverse and organized body of people on this planet. Then came the session on parading of the people of the world. Participants who were seated and dressed in their respective national costumes were quietly approached to join in the parade. They were lined up at the back of the stage from where they paraded through the crowd and finally came up the stage. They paraded to a well-read out script referring to the tribes and countries they represented and accompanied by a piece of uplifting music. The script mentioned that today, humanity in all its diversity, is representing 2000 races, tribes, and nations of the world. When all had arrived on the stage, the narrator, declared, “We are the People of the World, reflecting the great transformation of human society to one unified family.” As he said that the entire Congress raised on their feet, holding hands, and joined the choir by singing “We are the People of Bahá.”

Day One of the Congress came to an end, and everyone left the hall with radiant faces and broad smiles.

We are the People of the World 

DAY TWO 

Day two celebrated ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the Centre of the Covenant The program highlighted the world-embracing nature of the Covenant, New York as the City of the Covenant, and an intimate and personal appreciation of of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.

Some participants entering the Jacob Javits Centre on the second day

PERSONAL ENCOUNTERS WITH THE MASTER

There were brief recollections of some believers who had met the Master when He came to America in 1912. One was Mr. Shinji Yamamoto, whom the Master named Husayn. He was a Japanese who worked in the home of Mrs. Helen Goodhall in California, and had the blessing of sitting on the Master’s lap during His visit to the USA. Next was Mrs. Betty who was raised by the Master in His arms when she was still an infant. The Master had whispered something into her ears that she could not understand. She was waiting to see the Master in the next world and ask Him to repeat what He had whispered to her on earth. The third was Mrs. Sylvia Paine Parmelee, who at the age of 12 went on a Pilgrimage in 1920 and met the Master. The fourth was Mrs. Bahiyyih Randall Winckler who recollected the Master coming to her home when she was five years old. Then came Mr. Aziz Yazdi who recalled events when he lived in the household of the Master in the final three years. They all gave some vivid recollections of their personal encounter with the beloved Master, too detailed to be mentioned here. Suffice to say the believers of the future generation would not be able to get such personal recollections for obvious reason. On that account, the participants of the Congress were the privileged lot.

Then came the experiencing of historical moments by four American Bahá’ís who met the Master in 1912. They staged dramatic presentations of their personal encounters with the Master. Four believers acted out as Juliet Thompson, Lua Getsinger, Howard MacNutt and Louis Gregory. The script they memorized and spoke was very authentic as they were taken from historical documents. The theme was their struggle to remain loyal and faithful to the Covenant. In this session, the audience was truly transported to the days of the Master in America.


Aziz Yazdı who spoke on meeting the Master with his wife. (Photo courtesy: N.S.S. Silan)

SPECIAL FILM

Then came the screening of a specially produced film for the occasion, on the visit by the Master to New York city. The movie depicted the City of New York at the time of the arrival of the Master. It contained newspaper coverages as well as photos of the Master meeting some dignitaries and addressing at some important meetings. Some of the spoken words of the Master were used in this film. The audience was able to get the spirit of the time the Master visited New York in 1912.

Next came Professor and Historian Firuz Kazemzadeh from Yale University who spoke on the Master as the Centre of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh. That was a well-researched presentation.

Malaysian participants flanked at both ends by participants from abroad. The Malaysian participants are L-R: Florence Thurasingam, Veronica Lim, Malini Achro and her husband Raj

DAY THREE
Day three covered some achievements of the Baháʼí community with the theme “The Victories of the Covenant”.

At the first session, some believers from different countries were called upon to share their stories of the transformative power of the Faith. Mr. Juan Bejarano, a Guyamian, a tribal believer shared how the people wanted the Faith to preserve their culture when the Faith was first given to them. He spoke of the Bahá’ís, while being faithful to the Bahá’í institutions and with the blessings of the institutions were setting up, among others Radio Bahá’í, Climate Cultural Centre and children’s schools. Through such programs his people were undergoing transformation in their spiritual lives., Mrs. Janek Palta from India shared how the Indore Project, which was a Socio-Economic Development Project,  had offered rural and tribal women courses on literacy, health care and income generating skills, along with application of spiritual values in their lives. Caste prejudices were much removed and the men stopped drinking alcohol. The hundreds of women then started to recognise the influence of Bahá’u’lláh in their lives. The success of this school was recognized when it won one of the Global 500 Environmental Action awards issued by the United Nations Environment Program and presented at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, equivalent to the Nobel prize for ecology. A believer from Brazil shared the unprecedented recognition given to the Faith at the Earth Summit of 1992 which was the largest gathering of heads of state and governments that had gathered for discussing the future of humanity. There gathered some 30,000 people and 12,000 Non-Governmental Organisations. On the Peace Moment were engraved the following words, “The earth is but one country and mankind its citizens”. The Chairperson of the session underscored that all these successes were attributed to obedience to the institutions and firmness in the Covenant. The audience felt so gratified that so much had been going on to emblazon the name of Bahá’u’lláh.

A tribal believer from abroad flanked by two Malaysian believers – Subramaniam on the left and Munusamy on the right.


Another blissful moment. L-R: Mrs. Tahereh Silan of Australia,  Mrs. Parvaneh Lee and Mrs. Lily Chinniah from Malaysia.(Photo courtesy: N.S.S.Silan) 

VICTORY OF THE COVENANT

Then came the screening of the film “VICTORY OF THE COVENANT”, focusing on the unfoldment of the Tablets of the Divine Plan over the decades, followed by the fulfillment of the Ten-Year Crusade launched by the Guardian. The movie highlighted glimpses of several unprecedented victories for the Faith- 1) The establishment of the Universal House of Justice in 1963; 2) The creation of the Continental Board of Counsellors; 3) The establishment of the International Teaching Centre; 4) The acceptance of the Faith by His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili, the first head of the state of Western Samoa and the erection of the House of Worship in the Pacific; and 5) The occupation of the permanent seat of the Universal House of Justice in 1983. Then came the announcement of some statistics- where some three million had become Bahá’ís, the number of Local Spiritual Assemblies had exceeded 27,000, and Bahá’ís living in 116,000 places in the world. The movie mentioned the unfortunate arrest of the National Assembly of Iran, the outlawing of the local assemblies and the full-force persecution of the believers in Iran as well as the destruction of the House of the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh and various Bahá’í properties which collectively drew worldwide attention. The movie also highlighted that the unprecedented worldwide media coverage of the happenings in Iran had exposed the Faith to the millions with the governments coming in support of the Iranian believers, and the General Assembly of the United Nations taking up the case for the first time. With all these, the Faith clearly emerged from obscurity. The movie then highlighted that in October 1985 the Universal House of Justice published “The Promise of World Peace”. By early 1986 a total of 138 heads of state had accepted the Peace Statement. The astonishing House of Worship in New Delhi was dedicated and stood out as one of the architectural wonders of the century. The expansion of the Faith accelerated in Eastern Europe and the former republics of the Soviet Union were opened to the power of the Covenant. The Brazilian Federal Chamber of Deputies paused for a two-hour tribute to the Blessed Beauty which included the reading of a message from the Universal House of Justice. The Holy Year opened with moving ceremonies at the World Centre commemorating the Ascension of Bahá’u’lláh, with some 3,000 believers circumambulating the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. The Bahá’í International community was asked to address the historic Earth Summit in 1992. The influence of Bahá’u’lláh Revelation could now be felt in all spheres of human existence.

With the movie listing all these achievements and inroads for the Faith, the audience was overwhelmed with awe and wonder at the resistless and onward march of the Faith. There was a great sense of pride swelling in the hearts of one and all.

Following this film was another short film screened to show honour to the Hands of the Cause of God. This film showed photographs of the Hands appointed by Bahá’u’lláh and those referred to as Hands by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá, as well as those appointed by the Guardian.

Malaysian believers inside the Congress hall. L-R: Tan Long Hock and his wife Lee Siew Hian, Mrs. Joo Jong Lum, Teresa Munusamy and Miss Ong Eng Eng.

THE THREE LIVING HANDS

Then came another equally thrilling and exciting session – address by the three living Hands of the Cause of God.

FURÚTAN

Mr. Furútan spoke about the many prophecies of the future that he had read in the Writings during his youth days and how he had seen them being fulfilled, starting with Bahá’u’lláh’s Tablet of Sultan written to Nasiruddin Shah. He recollected the First Bahá’í World Congress in 1963 and quoted the Encyclopaedia Britannica mentioning the growth of the Faith. He also mentioned about meeting the Guardian in 1941 and later in 1954. He said the Guardian mentioned in 1954 that Russia was in the dark phase and about its bright future too. The Guardian had mentioned that Mr. Furútan would go back to Russia and asked him to be patient. He was patient for sixty years in Russia. He received a letter from the Guardian in 1930 and went to Moscow to establish the Local Spiritual Assemblies. In 1991 the House of Justice asked him to go to Russia for the election of the National Spiritual Assembly. In 1992 the House of Justice asked him to go to the former Baltic states and Hungary for the election of national assemblies. Mr. Furútan said he could not believe his eyes as he was back in the very country that pushed him out! He then mentioned that whatever is revealed by the pen of Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá and the Guardian will certainly be fulfilled. Mr. Furútan then stated that he was privileged to be still alive to participate in the Second World Congress which was beyond his imagination. He then urged the Bahá’ís to do a lot in the field of teaching, as Bahá’u’lláh has made teaching obligatory for all. He said he wanted to live a few more years, and when he died, he would thank Bahá’u’lláh for enabling him to see the fulfilment of whatever he had read in the Tablets.

‘ALÍ-MUHAMMAD VARQÁ

Hand of the Cause Mr. ʻAlí-Muhammad Varqá who spoke next said it was a great day for us as the city of New York reminded us of those noble days the beloved Master made His historic trip and landed in this city and showered His love upon the people here and among the Bahá’ís. He mentioned the calls the Master had made in this city. Racial prejudice was so prevalent that one hotel owner refused the Bahá’ís to hold the Day of the Covenant in the presence of the Master. But eighty years later this gathering of lovers of ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá is taking place in the same city with Bahá’ís from around the world, diversified by culture and tradition, but unified by heart, mind, and belief. The Hand of the Cause said that the invisible presence of the Master is felt in our hearts. He compared the first World Congress of 1963 to the Second World Congress to show how far we have grown today in terms of statistics. He then mentioned some statistics. He said this current growth was the outcome of the endeavour and sacrifice of the believers and there are many victories in store for the future. He said we still have a long way to go. He quoted what the Guardian had mentioned in the book Advent of Divine Justice about the future events. He urged the believers to execute the plans of the House of Justice and bring in much more excellent victories than what we have achieved before.

AMATU’L-BAHÁ

Amatu’l-Bahá said the Congress was filled up with so much emotions in which they had absorbed so much. Rather than repeating what her fellow Hands had said so clearly, she gave a few interesting anecdotes. She recollected very moving stories of some Bahá’í ladies who had created a deep impact in the history of the Faith through their sacrifices or examples they set. The essence of these stories was to demonstrate the kind of fine gems Bahá’u’lláh had created. She then mentioned about the last election of the Universal House of Justice. It was held in a big hall with many delegates from all over the world. In the back rows were some totally illiterate village Bahá’ís from Ethiopia who could not write their names. There was another bush Negro from Suriname, also illiterate. The Universal House of Justice arranged for a woman secretary to sit next to them and write the names, and they voted. She said this is the calibre of the religion to which we belong, not the twelve basic principles and all the intellectual teachings. These are the things that make this religion worthy and bring solutions to the problems of the world.

Amatu’l-Bahá then said that we today have very distinguished Bahá’ís in the midst as professors and intellectuals who add a great deal of prestige to the Faith in the estimation of the people. They are on all continents. She said they never had such people during her time. Bahá’í youth too are simply wonderful as they are exemplary in their moral behavior and arising to go teach in Russia and other countries. She said this is a marvelous development she had observed recently.

She then mentioned that Bahá’ís lack in imagination. It is we who have to live our lives and be answerable to Bahá’u’lláh. She then related an incident with Shoghi Effendi. She wanted to do something and Shoghi Effendi did not allow her to do it. He saw the disappointment on her face and told her, “You have sacrificed so much in your life. You can sacrifice this too.” She then said that we have sacrificed so much for Bahá’u’lláh and we can give more and make it a regular part of our life for the service to the Cause. Amatu’l-Bahá then said she was under the impression that she need not worry about her last breath as she was in the hands of Shoghi Effendi. But Shoghi Effendi told her in no uncertain terms, “Your destiny lies in the palm of your own hands.”

She mentioned how in the early days the cultural difficulties at times did not permit things to happen with ease. She recalled her own difficulties when adjusting to the cultures among women in Haifa. But today looking at the Congress she mentioned about the different backgrounds the participants came from- different races, different cultures, and different nations. Yet they were gathered in the hall sheltered by of the Universal House of Justice. She then urged the believers to go out of the hall and spread the teachings of Bahá’u’lláh in any way they can so that we can be worthy of having heard the name of Bahá’u’lláh. She urged the friends to go back and share with families, friends and colleagues on what they had seen at the Congress. Those were her parting words. The three Hands then appeared on the stage and posed for the Conference participants, who applauded for quite a long time.

That evening was highly educational with so many words of wisdom uttered by the three Hands of the Cause, along with other events. 

James Liew and his wife Lye Seek Luen from Malaysia at the left with new-found friends.

Another happy moment: L-R: Mrs. Tahereh Silan, Dr. Singaraveloo, Amelia from the UK, S. Ravichandran, Omna One and Bernard Ong. (Photo Courtesy: N.S.S. Silan)

Veterans of early days L-R: N.S.S. Silan, Shantha Sundram, Errol Seow Hoon Hin, Betty. (Photo Courtesy: N.S.S. Silan)

DAY FOUR

Day four explored humanity’s encounter with Baháʼu’lláh as a prelude to the culmination of the Congress, and with a message from the Universal House of Justice.

The special arrangement for this last day ensured that the congress was not only for the 30,000 Bahá’ís gathered in New York but also for nine other conferences in different parts of the world. During the morning session, two-way satellite links were made with each of these continental conferences. The participants in New York were linked with nine other conferences held in different parts of the world through satellites placed some 22,000 miles in space. A high level of excitement was boiling among the participants in New York and those other places in the world and there was thunderous applause from all parties. The New York Congress was connected to the conference in other places starting with Apia, Western Samoa followed by Buenos Aires in Argentina, Bucharest in Romania, New Delhi in India, Moscow in Russia, Nairobi in Kenya, Panama City in Panama, Singapore city in Singapore and finally Sydney in Australia. From each of the conferences were sent greetings to the participants in New York.

MESSAGE FROM THE SUPREME BODY

New York was linked to the Holy Land where the nine members of the Supreme Body came in contact through a live broadcast. Mr. Hooper Dunbar read the message from the Supreme Body to those assembled at the New York Congress and the ancillary gatherings held in the continents. In the message, the Supreme Body felt proud for the worldwide community to have progressed amazingly since 1892, with the community now embracing the entire planet. The message pointed out that the world in its current condition had lost its bearings through the operation of forces it neither understood nor could control. But the Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh sheds new light; it refreshes our thoughts; it clarifies and expands our conception…This Covenant is the guarantee against schism; that is why those who occasionally attempt to create a cleavage in the community utterly fail in the long run…The Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh gives new meaning to humanity’s checkered history; it imparts a fresh impulse to human striving. “Like unto the artery,” ‘Abdu’l-Bahá states, it “beats and pulsates in the body of the world.”


Mrs. Kunja Balan of Malaysia is at the extreme left, with some believers from abroad.


All smiles. Chong Boo Haw of Malaysia in the centre with blue coat and Mrs. Tahereh Silan at extreme right with new friends. Photo courtesy: N.S. S. Silan)

CLOSING SESSION BY AMATU’L-BAHÁ

At the concluding session of the Congress Amatu’l-Bahá said that our hearts are very full with the wonderful message of the Supreme Body which was just read. She asked the believers to return to their homes and see if the message appears in their own newsletters in their own languages as quickly as possible. This message, she said would give the believers and institutions how to focus their attention on possible future events for mankind. On behalf of all gathered she thanked Mayor Dinkins for his warm and genuine and warm appreciation. She also mentioned that she was aware many had come to the Congress after so much sacrificial efforts, especially in light of financial constraints. She said this Faith is a religion of happiness. She recalled the words of Bahá’u’lláh spoken to professor E.G. Browne, “I desire the happiness of the nations” which is a very important and yet singularly neglected statement of Bahá’u’lláh. He did not mention the prosperity of the nations, but the happiness. Amatu’l-Bahá asked that as Bahá’ís we should carry out more of that happiness. She said the immediate future is dark but the distant future is very bright and that people have the right to listen to the Bahá’ís, as many would face in the near future all kinds of complicated deaths. She said we must talk about the immortality of the soul and we do not fear death or the future. We must talk about the great future the Bahá’ís believe in the future of the entire world.

Thus ended the Congress  with the reading of the Tablet that ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá revealed in 1912 for the city of New York.

Group photo of believers  from Malaysia with some other Malaysian believers  who had settled in different countries


Leaving the Jacob Javits Centre on the last day.

ANCILLARY EVENTS

There were interesting ancillary events going on in the evenings in selected locations. One was the presentation of the forthcoming Arch Project coming up on Mount Carmel, with architect Fariborz Sahba making the presentation. And there were also musical presentations by the best Bahá’í musicians from across the globe. The Persian believers were most happy to play their traditional instruments. There were also artistic performances and traditional dances by more than 100 artists from around the world, with Kevin Lock as one who presented his traditional dance. Performances ranging from the deepest jungles to the most urban settings were staged with each stealing the show. The stage was for people of the world which was most distinctly represented. It was a confluence of different cultures in perfect harmony.

EXHIBITION

At the same time as the Congress there was an ongoing exhibition at the New York Hilton on the theme of “‘Abdu’l‑Bahá: Mission to America”. It was a special tribute to ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá in which the Bahá’ís were taken through a time capsule to the very real-time the Master came to America in 1912. It was open to more than a hundred dignitaries, civic and religious leaders from the Jewish, Christian and Islamic Faiths, along with reporters from around the world. Amatu’l-Bahá gave a guided tour to those dignitaries. Again, those in the morning session came here in the afternoon and those in the afternoon session came in the morning. At least five large ballrooms occupied this exhibition that had the selected writings and statements of the Master, images and photographs of His meeting with important personalities and gatherings. Nothing was left out. Everyone was totally silent as they went through the exhibition. It was simply mind-boggling to see that exhibition that had the fullest details of the visit by the Master to New York. At the end of the exhibition the group gathered around a large table on which was placed a cream-colored fez of the Master. When all had gathered, the recording of the voice of the Master reciting a prayer was played, only to move all to the very core of their hearts, with many in tears, and expressing deep gratitude to the organizers for that most unexpected spiritual treat. As they exited the exhibition there was total silence, and lost for words momentarily.

FOOD FOR THE SOUL

That music is food for the soul saw its full expression and meaning at the Congress. The songs by the choir kept filling the hall between speeches only to amplify the spirit of the Congress. Vocal music comprised of soloists and a choir of about a thousand voices from Bahá’í volunteers from all over the world. Some audio-visual segments of the program were accompanied by a highly professional symphony orchestra that accompanied the choir and soloists. What was most interesting was the selection of musical styles from different parts of the world that truly reflected the diversity and worldwide character of the Faith. It needs to be mentioned that much of the music was specifically written for the occasion. There were also songs by the various races in their own native languages. Hard work was put in by several famous Bahá’í composers such as Tom Price as well as several distinguished non-Bahá’í composers who wrote pieces for suiting specific segments of the program. The song “Look at Me, Follow Me” sung in English by Paul Seaforth and “Dastam Begir ‘Abdu’l-Bahá” in Persian by Nargis stole the show and the souls, along with songs by Dash Crofts. At one segment the chairperson was carried away that he had to say that the musical note reached a new record high-level quality. In the last singing session where the spirit soared so high, the participants were all simultaneously on their feet, holding each other’s hands and singing with them with an outburst of boundless joy

Some months after the Congress was over the music presented at the Congress in the form of Compact Discs labeled “Music from the Bahá’í World Congress – New York 1992” was then marketed all around the world.

INTERVIEWS

The Congress received much publicity from the media. As the Congress was in session, the organizers interviewed some participants who spoke in their native languages as well as English. And at the same the non-Bahá’í reporters were also interviewed. Those reporters including one from the BBC and the TASS News Agency had so many lovely things to say about the Faith and the Congress itself. Among others, the local reporters from the Daily Challenge and international reporters from the BBC were actively covering the event. Mr. Rob Weinberg from the BBC commented, “The Bahá’í World Congress is particularly interesting for the press because it has such a wide variety and diversity of people. I don’t know if there are any other events in the world where you have that broad sweep of different nations, different cultures, different nationalities different religious backgrounds coming together. I think that in itself is a new story that is unusual in the world. Newsstands do focus on violence, aggression and war and here is a real gathering of the nations of the world coming together to talk about issues which matter.”


TV interviewing participants

PERIPHERALS

Since the participants were divided into two groups, those belonging to the morning session and afternoon sessions went around the city for a quick visit to some landmark places during their free time. Some in the morning session found time to fly to the House of Worship in Wilmette and yet on time for the Congress the next morning. It was during that one whole week that some 30,000 believers created impacts in ways more than one. All of them moved with badges visibly large enough for any stranger to read the words “Bahá’í World Congress”. The curious peddlers, coffee stand owners, restaurant workers, taxi drivers and those on the streets of New York received some kind of proclamation of the Faith. Some curious people approached some believers for explanation of the badges they wore which led to discussions on the Faith. One taxi driver asked a couple what the large number of people were doing in New York. The couple explained to him briefly that about the Faith which aims to bring world peace. The driver said, “No wonder I can feel some kind of peaceful atmosphere and calmness in New York. I hope you people could extend the congress days or have such events often in New York.”

Another unexpected event happened. An ice- sculptor who had read about this Congress in the papers contributed his part. He sculptured a pair of doves in ice and placed them next to the entrance of the main hall. Since it was winter, the doves made of ice remained intact till the Congress was over.

News agencies both local and abroad kept covering the event round the clock and the participants were thrilled to see the news being flashed in the dailies in New York. And when they returned to their respective countries, they were informed of the coverage of the event in their local dailies.

Participants visited a busy bookshop set up for the occasion where they purchased commemorative souvenirs such as books and T-shirts and sling bags carrying the words “Bahá’í World Congress, New York, 1992”.

WHAT THE CONGRESS MEANT

The participants returned home with their thoughts permanently fixed on the wonders and miracles they witnessed in the City of the Covenant. Pages would not suffice to describe the Congress. To many, it meant many things in many ways. Most striking in the minds of the participants was witnessing the fulfilment of the cherished hope of the beloved Master: “I eagerly anticipate the day when New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant of God will go forth to every part of the world, thus making that city outstanding from every point of view …” Each session of the Congress was moving, stirring, and striking, with no words to adequately describe the emotions that ran high. As the participants stepped out of the Jacob Javits Centre after the last session, I felt like Alice stepping out of her wonderland! To me, it was clear and manifest that the Congress events were driven into resounding success as it took place under the watchful eyes of Bahá’u’lláh. It could be everyone’s guess that the Concourse on High must have descended into that ecstatic hall.  Reflecting on the showering bounties gained at the Congress, I had this invocation pulsating in my heart- “O Bahá’u’lláh! What hast Thou Done!” And I believe I was not alone.  Throughout the Congress tears were welling in their eyes and rolling down their cheeks on the wonders they were witnessing – they were all tears of joy. The stories and advice from the three Hands of the Cause of God present were most touching. To many of the younger generation that was the first time they ever met any Hand of the Cause. It was at this conference that the believers had the closest encounter with the spirit of ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá, especially through the exhibition in His honour, special films on Him, speeches on Him and recollections from some who had met Him in person. The messages from the Supreme Body gave the participants direction for the future, and the needed courage to go on with life. The Congress reinforced the undeniable fact that the growth, development and recognition of the Faith have now reached an unstoppable phase. The notion by some people in the wider world that the unity of mankind as promised by Bahá’u’lláh is a utopia was completely and definitely demystified. No words of thanks could justify in appreciating the American Bahá’í community whom the Guardian had referred to as the direct descendants of the Dawn Breakers for having made the best physical arrangements- par excellence!

On reaching home the participants were happy to learn that while they were at the Congress in New York, the event was covered in both the print and electronic media in their respective countries. There were many phone calls coming in or going out on the earth-shaking event that took place in the City of the Covenant.

“India Abroad” dated 4 December 1992, gave a huge coverage of the Congress. At the top right is Col Dr. G. Gopinath, a Malaysian believer serving as Director General of the Bahá’í House of Worship in New Delhi, India. (India Abroad is a weekly newspaper published from New York City, which focuses on Indian news meant for Indian American, Indian diaspora and expatriate audience.)

Heeding the call of Amatu’l-Bahá to share with families, friends and colleagues on what they had seen at the Congress, a Regional Bahá’í Congress was organized in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia with a suitably crafted program. The spirit and joy of the New York Congress was very much prevalent at this Regional Congress.

This was a Congress of a rare kind, the like of which may not be repeated, at least for some time to come. Suffice it to say that the Second Bahá’í World Congress shall forever be etched, with the greatest joy, in the memory of the participants.

 

A. Manisegaran

31 March 2023

 

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23 thoughts on “REMEMBERING THE SECOND BAHÁ’Í WORLD CONGRESS

  1. Mani
    Thank you for the write up on the Second Bahai World Congress.
    I remember with great excitement planning to go to the City of the Covenant in the Bahai Holy Year 1992, for a World Congress! I remember my mom had been to the to the First Bahai World Congress held in London in 1963. I was a little girl of eight years old- and now I had the chance to go to the Second Bahai World congress in New York in 1992!

    The idea would have been inconceivable because of the cost, except that our cousin Zeena Fernandez who was now living in New York married to Lawrence Arturo, had offered to accommodate any of her family who wish to attend.

    Well there were several family members who took up the offer and I think there were more than 12 of us who decided to attend the conference and stay at Zeena and Lawrence Arturo’s one bedroom apartment. Zeena had a little map of where everybody would sleep -every space on her floor, every sofa, every inch was accounted for, like sardines. What an awesome experience. Amongst the guests there were Zeena’s mum, Auntie Betty and her husband, Richard Benson, my sister Nita and her husband Manu Tahmasebian, my sister Padma, me and my mum, Shantha. I can’t remember all the others but there were several others. All this added to the excitement and amazement of the event.

    Because we arrived a little bit earlier and Lawrence had been part of the organisers. I volunteered to help in whatever way they needed and they said I could help backstage, which was quite an amazing experience. One of my tasks was to make the speakers comfortable and meet their needs. I don’t remember any of the other speakers but I do remember the lovely lady, Mrs Betty who had met Abdul Baha as a little girl and I assisted her, held her hand and helped her to sit on a chair backstage before she did her presentation, with several invited guests who shared their memories of meeting Abdul Baha.

    What I remember most of the conference was the presence of the arts.
    The world congress choir was outstanding with musical director, Tom Price. That was also lovely for me because we know Tom well from his time in Australia. I sing in the Bahai choir in Perth and our choir director, Greg Parker and my sister, Malini had sung with Tom in the past, and were good friends.

    Every day there was heavenly music by the World Congress choir which stirred our hearts and set the tone for the day. Knowing that they had been practicing their parts at home in different parts of the world, and finally came together to sing was very moving for all the choir members as well as the audience.

    On the day of the covenant there were a few dramatic performances on the covenant showing different aspects of obedience to the covenant with someone playing the part of Juliette Thompson, Howard Mc Nut, Louis Gregory and Lua Getsinger. and to demonstrate obedience to the covenant.

    As part of my role as a volunteer backstage they asked me to take some clothing to a local drycleaner, to be pressed. I was really traumatised by the thought of it, because even at the best of times I’m terrible with direction. I witnessed a miracle- I prayed and called on the Concourse on High to assist me. Out of nowhere, a dear friend from Perth, Bob Edis who was taking a break at that moment from the choir practice, accompanied me to the drycleaners and I was able to fulfil my task -the dramatic performances were amazing. I felt proud to have played a little part in it, backstage.

    I can’t really remember most of the talks but remember the lovely experience of catching up with old friends from near and far. Since Mum was with us we kept bumping into people she knew over the years.

    I felt an overwhelming feeling of pride and joy at being a Bahai and a part of this world event which was truly a taste of the future and being in an ocean of people from around the world speaking, laughing, singing together.

    While in New York we had a chance to visit the office of the Bahai International community, and later went to Chicago and visited the Chicago Bahai House of worship.

    Susheel Croft
    Perth
    Australia

  2. Dear Mani,
    Thank you so much for the comprehensive write up on the Second Bahai World Congress held in New York in November 1992. Congratulations on your detailed information that you shared with the Bahai world. It is a treat for those who were unable to attend in person. The event is well captured and detailed out with so much emotions. I am most impressed with all these details and the way you have presented the story. I am equally impressed with your God-given talent.
    May Bahaullah bless you and your family.

    Rose Ong
    SINGAPORE

  3. Dear Mani,
    Thank you so so so much for taking me back to 31 years ago, right into New York and the conference hall. I remember all those excitement, happiness and joy that we had by watching those 4 Videos, highlighting of each day of the Second Baha’i World Congress. But you have written beautifully capturing many things those videos did not cover. You have done so much research. Your direct participation has helped in coming out with these keen observation.

    Malaknaz Johnson
    Gabrione
    BOTSWANA

  4. My Dear friend Mani,
    As expected you did a great write up giving one great feel of the significance and wonderment of the historical Second Bahá’í Congress in New York. The story not only carried information of what happened but more so the emotions, joy, happiness and excitement of those who attended. Somehow I could not make it to the Congress. But on reading the story, it makes me feel should have attended. The well- written story truly conveys the spirit of the Congress and its happenings. Am sure when all who attended the Congress read your article it will bring back floods of memories, just the way when I read about the International Bahá’í Conference in Hong Kong in November 1976.

    Professor Dr. Jimmy Show
    Perth
    West Australia

  5. Dear Mr Manisegaran,

    Tears rolled profusely without me realizing it as I was reading through the story you wrote on the Second Bahai World Congress. Some thirty one years have passed since the Congress, but that you have penned in such a way that I felt it happened once again right in front of my eyes. Every inch of information, incidents, anecdotes, small stories here and there and many of your detailed and vivid descriptions brought me back to where I was sitting, standing, walking, talking around the Jacob Javits Centre, the hotels, airport and around New York city. “Thank you” is too small a word for a too big a task you have undertaken -lifelong and beautiful memories have been recorded for posterity.

    As you have very correctly said, it was absolutely the blessings of the Blessed Beauty Who in His mercy allowed me to be there in person after going through so much painful difficulties while preparing for the long and expensive travel across continents.

    May Baha’u’llah gives you strength and good health to continue your service that you love the most.

    Pandian Thangapandy
    Ipoh
    Malaysia

  6. Hi Mani,
    You really wrote a very comprehensive write up of the Second World Congress. All of us who were privileged to have attended this historical congress can never forget the warmth and love radiating from all the Baha’is present.

    On the plane from Chicago to New York, like you described, we were so overwhelmed with greetings from our fellow Baha’i passengers from different parts of America. I think many of us were very surprised and overjoyed when the Captain welcomed us to the World Congress in New York.

    All the inspiring talks and songs from the Congress transported us to a different realm. I had goosebumps when I heard the loud trumpets at the opening session!

    Future generations of Baha’is who wish to know more about the Second World Congress should read this well – researched write up which is not only informative but also conveys the wonderful Baha’i spirit present.

    Tan Boon Tin & Doreen Tan
    Ipoh
    Malaysia

  7. Mani

    I cannot thank Baha’u’llah enough for enabling me to attend the Second Baha’i World Congress in New York. The parade of the people of the nation that I witnessed at the Congress brought to life the teachings of Baha’u’llah on unity in diversity. Thousands of participants of diverse background and countries attending this Congress and the continental conference is a testimony to this reality. It happened right in front of our eyes. Simply incredible and unbelievable wonders were there.

    Tears flowed profusely when seeing the bouquet of flowers sent by friends from the Cradle of the Faith as they were arranged one by one below the stage. I was able to see three Hands of the Cause, whom I had never seen before. And that was a lifetime privilege. The songs by solo singers or choir group and the presentations by the youth really touched my heart.

    Satellite links to various continental conferences and the link to the World Centre are all just beyond my imagination. The world is just a neighbourhood. The talks and sharing were enlightening and inspiring.

    Finally, lots of sincere thanks to the writer for bringing back the memory on the Second Baha’i World Congress.

    Loving greetings,
    Suai Kirak @ Clarence
    Sarawak
    Malaysia

  8. It is a very inspiring article. The spirit of human unity is well described. Reading the story moves the heart so much. Posterity will be able to get a real feeling of the spirit of the Congress. It is definitely a undeniable truth of the rapid growth of the Faith and gives the confirmation of its power to capture the world spiritually.

    Great job Mani, Bahais will definitely benefit from this well written article.
    God Bless you.

    Professor Dr. Ananthan Krishnan
    Puchong
    Selangor
    Malaysia

  9. Mani
    Thank you for this record of all the details of the Second World Congress, which is a lot more than I remember and may be even experienced.

    Meeting up with immediate and extended family during that time and assigned to attending different sessions was lovely but had its problems.

    I am happy after all these years to see this record of all the proceedings.

    Grete Fozdar
    Kuching
    Sarawak
    Malaysia

  10. Dear Manisegaran,
    Thank you for capturing the spirit of the Second Baha’i World Congress so vividly. It was like we were all there in person. In the world we have so many ups and downs, this is a time of much turmoil and we need to share the message of Baha’u’llah even more urgently. We as Baha’is need to have faith in the ultimate victory. Ya Baha’u’llabha please God ye may achieve it.

    Loving greetings
    Ranee Daswani Sreedharan
    Kuala Lumpur
    Malaysia

  11. Dear Mani
    Thank you for taking us back in the time machine to the Second Bahai World Congress held in New York. I remember my wife and I flew with you and your wife, along with many other Malaysian Bahais who came in different groups. While my wife and I remember some of the events, you have added and captured some which we had forgotten. In any case, you have documented the congress proceedings very well.

    Not only the Faith transformed our lives, our participation in the World Congress has given us more vigour and confidence in serving the Faith. The entire Congress was too emotional for us. We really have to thank and appreciate the World Congress organising committee for their wonderful work. Everything was so orderly and well planned. It was so joyous and we find no words to express our gratitude. We were very touched to see and meet so many people of various cultural background. We were also very lucky to sit in the very front row of the days of the Congress. There were many exciting moments in the Conference Hall and outside as well. My wife and I come from Indian roots though we are of Malaysian nationality. My wife came dressed in saree, and the TV crew interviewed her on the saree she was wearing. She explained about the saree and also said something on the Faith and the Congress itself.

    Some miracles happened in the Bahai House of Worship in Chicago and we hope you will include that as well.

    We really enjoyed the whole congress and look forward for such an event in the near future, if it could take place within our lifetime.

    We beg God to give you good health and long lasting life to continue your wonderful services.

    Mr. Narasiah and Mrs. Parvathy Narasiah
    Seremban
    Malaysia

  12. Reading the article on the Second Bahai World Congress was so exciting and well-written with exotic details that I could not stop reading it until I had finished reading the whole article in one stand, perhaps because I didn’t go to either the First World Congress in London as I was just a young boy, or the Second World Congress in New York as I was then engaged in another teaching activity in Russia.

    Reading the article on the Second World Congress penned by dear Manisegarn and remembering the videos of the Congress that had gathered 30,000 believers in a single place appeared so real that I felt like being there in person and witnessing another scene of the glory of God on earth. Reading the Congress’s events and imagining the magnitude of its encompassing spiritual power and the intoxicating atmosphere of its united gathering is inspiring beyond measure. It was so inspiring that even today after the lapse of three decades you can’t afford to hesitate and not to arise to make an extra effort for the promotion of the Cause of God that urgently demands extra attention in endeavouring and engagement in the core activities, interfaith, and public discourse and in bringing people closer to the vision of Baha’u’llah.

    Who knows when the Baha’i community will witness its Third World Congress and its preceding local, national, and global victories that were achieved by its veterans, heroes, and heroines.

    Dr. Firaydun Mithaq
    Chieng Mai
    Thailand

  13. Thank you so much to bring back the memories of the Holy Year 1992, highlighting the Second Bahai World Congress held in New York. I enjoyed reading this narration of the World Congress as it reflects the Baha’i spirit prevalent in the gathering there.

    I was not fortunate enough to attend the Congress iin New York. I thank the Supreme Body for arranging some satellite conferences, including one that was held in Singapore, the closest to Malaysia where I resided. We Malaysians went to Singapore in a chartered bus to attend the satellite conference. I remember attending session in Singapore where we were in a live broadcast from the World Congress. It was evening in Singapore and morning in New York. All of us were simultaneously connected, from different part of the world. That gave me spiritual waves running all over my being. That was the first time I felt the world and humanity as one entity. I felt a true Baha’i spirit felt everywhere- in the Congress Hall in New York and the nine satellite conferences. I wish you had shared more photos.

    Thank you.
    Nehru Arunasalam
    Chicago
    USA

  14. Mani
    Thank you for such a detailed description of this wonderful gathering of souls! It brought back amazing memories of a unique moment in history. I was amazed to read that the Baha’is had been welcomed to New York Y by the captain of their flight. And thrilled to see the giant flag from Penang Island community where I came from.

    What marvellous notes you must have taken, to bring all this alive again!

    Padma Wong
    Perth
    Australia

  15. Dear Mr. Manisegaran

    I wanted to share with you my experience of attending the second Bahá’í World Congress from Singapore city, which marked the centenary of the passing of Bahá’u’lláh, the Founder of the Bahá’í Faith. It was an event that left a profound impact on me, both spiritually and personally.

    From start to end, the congress was truly inspiring. It had a high-level effect of rejuvenation and spiritual upliftment on me as I witnessed people from all walks of life coming together to celebrate the message of Bahá’u’lláh and the unity of humanity. It was a historic event that I will never forget.

    There were two significant reasons why the second Bahá’í World Congress was so meaningful to me. Firstly, it was held during the Holy Year (1992), and I had the honor of attending it with my beloved mother, Salachi Gopal, from Singapore city. She had accepted the Blessed Beauty just two years before this electrifying event, which was telecasted via satellite link. Secondly, it was during the Holy Year that my mother gifted me my first violin as I was pursuing my Carnatic lesson.

    As we witnessed the events, tears welled up in my mother’s eyes, and she kept repeating Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá as each of the conferences sent greetings to the participants in New York. The heightened level of excitement, cheers, and thunderous applause when the satellite link got through on the big screen before us were unforgettable. It was a truly emotional moment for both of us.

    The Congress brought together tens of thousands of believers from around the world to celebrate their faith and explore ways to promote unity and cooperation in the world. It was amazing to see how the Cause can transform the spiritual life of everyone, regardless of their background, creed, and color. The Congress was attended by more than 30,000 Bahá’ís from around the world, making it one of the largest religious gatherings in history.

    In conclusion, the second Bahá’í World Congress in New York City was a life-changing event for me. It enthused me to go pioneering to Cambodia in September 1994. It left a deep imprint on my heart and soul, and I will always be grateful for the opportunity to have been a part of it.

    With loving Bahá’í greetings,
    Vela Gopal
    Phnom Penh, Cambodia

  16. Dear Mani,
    Thank you for your detailed and enlightening account of the Second Baha’i world Congress. Your recollections have brought me renewed excitements and fond memories.

    My comments that follows may sound a bit too personal, but it was what I actually felt and experienced.

    Together with Baha’i friends from Penang we departed from Kuala Lumpur on the 20th November 1992, with stop over in Hong Kong, Taipei and Anchorage, Alaska before landed in New York which made a flight journey of over 24 hours. We were served 5 meals in the air during the like endless journey. At the Anchorage Airport many friends had the chance to touch and taste snow for the first time in their lives. What a wonderful moment and experience for them indeed.

    When we arrived at the hotel we were warmly welcomed by the hard working volunteers and collected our room keys orderly. I had booked a twin sharing room but my roommate didn’t turn up. I offered a Penang Baha’i youth Tan to share the room. He too didn’t show up. Later I learnt that he had been recruited as a volunteer and stayed at other place. As a result I had this big room with 2 double beds for myself throughout the 5 nights stay.

    Despite the long air journey I didn’t feel tired after checking in, so I took a 2 Block walk alone at around midnight. Great feelings ran through me during the first few hours at the City Of The Covenant. A dream came true mate!
    Each morning I had a good time dressing up in suit and tie. Here I must thank my previous public listed company, a popular hotel chain in Malaysia which had given me a tailor made suit in each year of service. I had worked for the company over 8 years. Even though I was with the property development division, my rank was equal to that of a hotel GM. Thus the business suit, free stay and flying 1st class came my way.

    Each day we would take the 20 minute cool morning walk to the Jacob Javits Convention Centre and not waiting for the scheduled vans and buses. We were all in good cheers and high spirits. We often met up with Baha’is from other countries and greeted them warmly. They too evinced happiness and shook our hands cheerfully. It was as though the Greatest Name never left our lips. We learned to bear hug too. What a gathering of blissful souls of different races, Like a garden of humanity in a haven on earth.

    One unforgettable moment for me was meeting up Heidi Maoni, one of the first 2 Baha’is who had driven 169 km from Melbourne to visit me in Bendigo in early 1970 when I had just arrived from Malaysia. Heidi was an architect and later settled down in New Zealand. He was brutally murdered in the course of teaching the Faith. The Supreme Body the Universal House Of Justice had declared him a martyr. Each day we approached the Convention centre with gladness and grateful hearts and followed the line to the auditirium and took our seats. On one occasion we were urshered to the front rows for video purposes.Through out the sessions, while sitting on the chair I found it hard to focus on the talks delivered by renowed key speakers. It seemed the situation had overwhelmed me and my mind tended to wander off. This is why I found your account was very rich in substance and I value it greatly. I dare say that my knowledge of the Congress has increased by a large measure by reading your recollections as compared to my personal presence at the Congress.
    After the Congress I was able to find and take back the banner which was done and sent to the Congress by the Skudai community and returned it to LSA of Skudai.

    Thanks again Mani for another priceless recollections.

    Keng Tong Hua
    Skudai
    Johor
    Malaysia

  17. I accepted the Faith after 1970 and as such l missed the first Baháʼí World Congress which was held in Royal Albert Hall in London. When l heard about the 2nd Baha’i World Congress to be held in New York in 1992 l was already married with two kids aged 17 and 14. This did not stop me from planning to attend this historical event. Somehow or other I managed to work out enough money to attend this event as a family.

    It was nearly a day’s journey by flight from Kuala Lumpur to New York. Everything was arranged for us in the package. We rested for one day and the next day we were off to Jacob Javits Hall where the congress was being held. I heard from other friends who were there that over 30,000 friends have come from all corners of the world to attend this congress. Because the hall could not accommodate all the 30,000 friends at one time, the sessions were divided into two. In the morning and the other in the evening. It was such a wonderful feeling to be there with the Hands of the Cause, Counsellors and other learned members. It was a great privilege that l was able to be there as a family. The programs were heartwarming. We were also privileged to hear the voice of Abdul Baha at an exhibition. I was also privileged to be selected to be in the Rose Garden. It was such a wonderful occasion to meet friends from all over the world. Such a happy and memorable occasion and we were happy to be part of this Congress, the one-hundredth anniversary of the passing of Baha’u’llah.

    Mrs. Kunja Balan
    Puchong
    Malaysia

  18. I am one of the lucky ones to attend the Baha’i Congress in New York City in 1992 as a family. It was an exciting moment for all of us to be among the 30,000 over participants from all over the world. It was so good to see people from various races and religious backgrounds intermingling with high spirit. I felt so good to be part of this gathering. It was really inspiring.

    It was such a memorable and important event where the President of the United States and the Mayor of New York d sent their greetings to the Congress. Most, if not all the events of the Congress have been well covered by the writer of the article, with even minute details. I think this is the first comprehensive document on the Second Bahai World Congress.

    I am thankful to Baha’u’llah to have granted me and my family this opportunity.

    Balan Krishnan
    Puchong
    Malaysia

  19. Dear Mani
    Your story is well written with so much details that so many feelings flooded my heart and I was in tears, missing that Congress and really looking forward to the next, if at all it happens in my lifetime.

    That was my first trip to New York, and my first trip to New York was for a Bahai purpose. All the passengers in the plane that was chartered had Bahais. Therefore the spirit was there from the time we boarded the plane and returned home. We were all looking forward to meeting the Bahais of the world in New York

    As we landed in New York, everything was well planned to make our stay comfortable, including the participation in the Congress. At the Congress I was happy to see the large banner that was prepared by the Malaysian Bahai community. Coming from Malaysia I was wearing the Malaysian costume- Baju Kebaya they say rather than the western attire. Many foreign believers who had never seen a Baju Kebaya took photos with me. Likewise I too took many photos with foreign Bahais who came in traditional costumes.

    The first day- the opening of the Congress was most touching and almost all the participants shed tears when a big bouquet of flowers was presented from the believers in the cradle of the Faith. Surprisingly the hall was full of the fragrances of the flower. More than that ,we were immersed in the divine fragrances that permeated the hall. Together with the enchanting music we were all transported to another world altogether.

    Amatul Baha gracing the event as representative of the Universal House of Justice was so touching. Her powerful voice and her very presence made all the difference. It was so great a sight to behold all the three last remaining Hands of the Cause appearing on the stage. Today’s generation and generations yet to be born would no more have opportunity to meet in person any Hand of the Cause as the appointment of the Hands has now ceased with the passing of the Guardian.

    Despite a tight schedule for the four days not even once I felt tired. The spirit overtook fatigue from all of us.

    Everyday we were looking forward to meeting new contacts in the Congress Hall. When walking down the street in New York too we came across some other Bahais from their radiant faces, and the badges they were wearing. Greetings of Allah-u-Abha was everywhere in the City of the Covenant for those four days.

    The great thing was the breaking of all barriers among the partcipants. There were exchange of addresses and phone numbers taking place everywhere for reasons of friendship, and certainly matrimony included. There was a Canadian Bahai man who had a liking for a Malaysian Bahai girl. He was always around our Malaysian group looking for her….

    Finally I enjoyed the Congress and it remains the best remembrance in my life til this day.

    Thank you Mani
    Veronica Lim
    Malaysia

  20. Beloved fellow Baha’is globally !
    From participating at the 2nd Baha’i World Congress in 1992, my mind is still very full of delightful memories from meeting and seeing again thousands of Baha’is from all over the world !

    I came from Switzerland’s Lugano where our beloved Guardian Shoghi Effendi had come much time, stopping days each time he traveled to Switzerland’s stunning mountains !

    To attend the 2nd World Congress, I arrived in New York’s Manhattan 3 weeks in advance and left 3 months after an intensive teaching trip by bus between Southern Canada and North Mexico.

    My most outstanding spiritual moment at this 2nd Baha’i Congress was when -so lucky- finding myself with a few dozen Amerindian Baha’is united in Prayer/Singing thanking Baha’u’llah. Every moment besides the Congress’ program was dedicated to sharing the Baha’i Teachings & answering questions from my fellow AFS students I visited at their homes through New York City.

    As Baha’i International Community representative to the United Nations, I also went over to the UNO headquarters before and after our most unforgettable Second Baha’i World Congress.

    I also attended one Regional Congress that was held in Malaysia some time after the New York Congress.

    Yours are my most heartfelt greetings and wishes from Samoa where, following Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery’s wish, I came with him, and I am now pioneering ever since 1994 !!
    Yours in His Service,
    Marco

  21. It was a poignant moment in my life witnessing the gathering of a diverse group of people from 180 countries in peace and harmony, greeting each other with utmost respect and love. It did create a deep impression amongst the people of New York as they kept asking about the gathering. At the hotel, some of the staff serving breakfast was astounded witnessing the fellowship. They commented that they have never seen such friendship amongst such a diverse group of people ever! They were in awe with the display of affection and love amongst the guests who were practically strangers before the Congress. Of course, it gave us plentiful opportunities to proclaim our beloved Faith.

    At that point of time, I could not comprehend why many found the display of unity, love, and trust amongst the Bahais ‘strange’. I guess as Baha’is we took such fellowship for granted as we embrace the fundamental principles of the ‘Oneness of Humanity’. As wars and distrust amongst nations continue to rage and engulf the globe, I believe that the stage is set for the ‘transformation of human society’. The New York World Congress was indeed a testimony to the world that peace and unity amongst nations is a reality and not just a conjecture in our minds, albeit in nascent stage of development. 30,000 people gathered in peace without a single incident united by the teachings and vision of Baha’u’llah. Indeed the ‘World is one country and Mankind its Citizens’.

    Thank you Mr. Mani for the opportunity.

    Regards,
    Malani
    Australia

  22. Dear Mani,
    Many thanks once again for sharing another excellent article remembering the 2nd Bahai World Congress held in New York in 1992.

    At that time, I was pretty new in the Baha’i Faith, but surrounded and well guided by friends in Kuala Terengganu. Though we didn’t make it to NY, however managed to attend the live telecast in Singapore. It was the first time seeing so many Baha’i friends attending the live event in Singapore. We can feel the excitement, energy, and enthusiasm of the friends listening attentively when the Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum as representative of the Universal House of Justice opened the Congress. Guess felt very privileged to have attended the momentous event with my family, and left the session with awe and renewed spirit to spread peace and unity as espoused by Bahá’u’lláh for the good of humanity.

    Regards
    Dr Leong Yow Peng
    Subang Jaya
    Malaysia

  23. Mani
    You wrote with such meticulous facts , not forgetting to infuse it with such warm spirit that the reader is brought back to those days.

    Also am particularly drawn to this statement by dear Amatul-Baha … “In the back rows were some totally illiterate village Bahá’ís from Ethiopia who could not write their names. There was another bush Negro from Suriname, also illiterate. The Universal House of Justice arranged for a woman secretary to sit next to them and write the names, and they voted. She said this is the calibre of the religion to which we belong, not the twelve basic principles and all the intellectual teachings. These are the things that make this religion worthy and bring solutions to the problems of the world.”

    And “She said this Faith is a religion of happiness. She recalled the words of Bahá’u’lláh spoken to professor E.G. Browne, “I desire the happiness of the nations” which is a very important and yet singularly neglected statement of Bahá’u’lláh. He did not mention the prosperity of the nations, but the happiness. ”

    These 2 highlights are enough for my compass on how to live throughout the years .

    Thanks again, Manisegaran for bringing moments of light, perceptive enlightenment and reminders of past and present heros through your literary works!

    Ong Eng Eng
    Klang
    Malaysia

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